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11: Batteries And Power Systems
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- 11.1: Electron Activity in Chemical Reactions
- So far in our discussions on electricity and electric circuits, we have not discussed in any detail how batteries function. Rather, we have simply assumed that they produce constant voltage through some sort of mysterious process. Here, we will explore that process to some degree and cover some of the practical considerations involved with real batteries and their use in power systems.
- 11.2: Battery Construction
- The word battery simply means a group of similar components. In military vocabulary, a “battery” refers to a cluster of guns. In electricity, a “battery” is a set of voltaic cells designed to provide greater voltage and/or current than is possible with one cell alone.
- 11.3: Battery Ratings
- Because batteries create electron flow in a circuit by exchanging electrons in ionic chemical reactions, and there is a limited number of molecules in any charged battery available to react, there must be a limited amount of total electrons that any battery can motivate through a circuit before its energy reserves are exhausted. Battery capacity could be measured in terms of total number of electrons, but this would be a huge number. We could use the unit of the coulomb (equal to 6.25 x 1018 ele
- 11.4: Special-purpose Batteries
- Back in the early days of electrical measurement technology, a special type of battery known as a mercury standard cell was popularly used as a voltage calibration standard. The output of a mercury cell was 1.0183 to 1.0194 volts DC (depending on the specific design of cell), and was extremely stable over time. Advertised drift was around 0.004 percent of rated voltage per year. Mercury standard cells were sometimes known as Weston cells or cadmium cells.
- 11.5: Practical Considerations - Batteries
- When connecting batteries together to form larger “banks” (a battery of batteries?), the constituent batteries must be matched to each other so as to not cause problems.